عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The Isma‘iliyyah sect was established in the second half of the 2nd century A.H. based on the belief in the imamah (Shi‘ah leadership) of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadigh’s son, Isma‘il. The Isma‘iliyyah invented their particular set of beliefs regarding the issue of the Mahdawiyyah (belief in the Coming of the Promised Mahdi). Isma‘il was the first person that they introduced as their 7th Imam and Promised Mahdi at the same time. Nevertheless, the majority of the Isma‘ilites later came to believe in Muhammad ibn Isma‘il as the Promised Mahdi and regarded him as their 7th Imam and the seal of the 6th Cycle. These people came to be known as Gharmati and were called Gharamitah or Gharmatian collectively. At the beginning, the Gharamitah turned away from Muhammad ibn Isma‘il and regarded Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah as the Promised Mahdi for a brief period before returning to Muhammad ibn Isma‘il again.
Later, the 1st Fatimid caliph, ‘Ubaydallah al-Mahdi made some changes in the Isma‘ili belief system of Mahdawiyyah and claimed to be the Promised Mahdi himself. During the rule of the 4th caliph, al-Mu‘izz, there was a limited return to belief in Muhammad ibn Isma‘il as the Promised Mahdi with some modifications however. During the rule of the 6th caliph, al-Hakim, the Druze organized the doctrine of al-Hakim’s divinity after he vanished in 411 A.H. and believed that he had not died and that he would one day return to rule again.
This paper reviews the Mahdawiyyah belief system of the Isma‘iliyyah sect and its various branches.