عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The way Muslim rulers and Khalifahs dealt with ahl-ul-dhimmah (the protected people) who lived in the protection of the Muslim state is among the important and considerable issues in the Islamic culture and civilization. Islam's just and humanitarian approach gave ahl-ul-Kitab (the people of the book) the opportunity to earn certain rights and privileges, through a treaty, while accepting certain other duties and obligations and considering themselves responsible to the relevant Islamic authority. The aim of this article is to present an age-old text on ahl-ul-dhimmah and examine their rights and obligations under Muslim rule.