عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
A series of incidents started from the middle of Uthman’s Caliphate and ended to his death and also the events of five-year- Caliphate of Ali particularly the battles of Jamal, Saffein, and Nahravan had a major role in the appearance of political and theological views. The issues like blasphemy and faith which was the major concern of people caused the Muslims’ intellectual disputes.
This matter made the theological sects mention the diverse opinions related to these battles, the participants and the killed people in them. These views will be investigated in the present article.